Sex steroids and the GH axis: Implications for the management of hypopituitarism.
Urban Dictionary: gh
The morphogenesis of the murine pituitary is initiated by neurulation and continues throughout embryonic development where it is under the influence of numerous critically timed signaling pathways that lead to the differentiation and proliferation of the individual endocrine cell populations Rizzoti The earliest exclusive pituitary marker is PROP1 , a paired homeodomain transcription factor, which is expressed at embryonic day 10 E10 in the mouse. On E Postnatal expression of Pou1f1 is maintained for the expansion and survival of these cell types and to regulate the expression of hormones and hypothalamic peptide receptors Olson et al. Of these Pou1f1 lineage cell types, somatotropes are the most abundant and are vital for optimized growth and body composition throughout life Childs , Akhter et al. Most somatotropes express leptin receptors LEPR , and the importance of leptin regulation in these cells was emphasized recently when the signaling component of LEPR Childs et al. Indirect calorimetry showed that these mice predominantly oxidized carbohydrates and had disrupted sleep and decreased activity Akhter et al.
Sex-specific changes in postnatal GH and PRL secretion in somatotrope LEPR-null mice
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No significant correlation was found in either group between the basal plasma estradiol or testosterone levels and the maximum or integratedGH response to GHRH. Recent in vivo and in vitro data reveal a similar sex difference in rodents and an enhancing effect of androgens, but not estrogens, on the GH response to GHRH. These findings support the theory that in humans testosterone also plays a key role in the genesis of this sex difference.